Depression Center Colloquium Series
For health professionals and researchers with an interest in depression and related illnesses.
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Please note: CME credit is not available when viewing archived presentations. In order to receive CME credit, you must attend the live presentation. Participants who view the live activity from a remote location can receive credit as long as they are able to interact with the live presenter and audience.
Friday, December 11, 2009
- Diane Quinn, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut
- Jennifer Crocker, Ph.D., Claude M. Steele Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan
Interpersonal relationships affect how we feel about ourselves and the world. In this colloquium, social psychologists Dr. Diane Quinn, Ph.D. and Dr. Jennifer Crocker, Ph.D. explore how worries about self-image relate to psychological distress. Dr. Quinn presents two studies focusing on concealed stigmatized identities. The preliminary results of her ongoing research indicate three identity factors positively correlated with increased psychological distress: 1) strength of association with an identity, 2) anticipated discrimination as a result of ‘coming out’ about that identity, and 3) the how frequently that identity comes to mind. Dr. Quinn concludes that these three factors must be considered in interventions targeted at reducing the psychological distress caused by concealed stigmatized identities. Then, Dr. Crocker shares four studies that explore correlations between relationship goals and distress, anxiety and depression. Her work finds that both avoidant and proactive compassionate goals (striving to promote the well-being of others) are protective against distress, anxiety and depression, and that self-image goals (striving to promote how one is perceived by others) increase distress, anxiety and depression. Dr. Crocker concludes that interventions addressing interpersonal goals may be an effective way to decrease distress.
Key words: relationships, goals, stigma, identities, coming out, disclosure, distress
Friday, November 13, 2009
- Wayne C. Drevets, M.D., Senior Investigator, NIMH Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program
- Scott Langenecker, Ph.D., Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine
Using cutting-edge brain imaging technology, researchers are currently studying whether images of the brain can be read to predict treatment response in patients with Major Depressive Disorder. In this colloquium, Dr. Scott Langenecker 1) explains models of depression, 2) outlines the cognitive tasks involved in depression, and 3) presents the findings of experiments on correlations between brain activity and response to treatment. He concludes that because it has multiple causes, multiple treatments should be considered for patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Dr. Wanye C. Drevets then shares his queries into neuroimaging correlates of treatment response in Major Depressive Disorder. Dr. Drevits presents an overview of neuroimaging techniques, the predictors that have been replicated with experimentation, and then outlines several specific experiments and their findings. While his work indicates several possible predictors of treatment response (including grey matter, basal metabolic activity and biomarkers), Dr. Drevits explains that further research is necessary.
Key words: brain imaging, treatment response, Major Depressive Disorder, brain activity
Friday, October 23, 2009
- Warren D. Taylor, M.D., Associate Professor and Vice-Chair, Institutional Review Board, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center
- Sara Wright, Ph.D., Clinical Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine
Thursday, September 24, 2009
Perinatal Depression and the Parent-Child Dyad
- Meir Steiner, M.D., Professor Emeritus, Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Obstetrics & Gynecology Founding Director, Women's Health Concerns Clinic, St Joseph's Hospital Professor, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto
- James Swain, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine
The leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality are perinatal psychological disorders, but often perinatal depression is underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. This could lead to postpartum depression; use of drugs and alcohol; poor self-care, nutrition, and sleep; negative effects on bonding; noncompliance with prenatal care; and other maladaptive outcomes. Additionally, babies exposed to the effects of untreated prenatal stress and depression experience a higher rate of miscarriage, smaller gestational age, neurodevelopmental delays, and emotional and behavioral problems. While past research has suggested that antidepressants increase the risk of congenital malformations and disturbed organ developmental, newer antidepressants have been suggested to not be associated with increased risk, as compared to the normal population. Dr. Steiner recommends the use of antidepressants for perinatal depression, but only when the patient is diagnosed with a disorder, experiences the burden of illness or stress, and wishes to take medication. Furthermore, the lowest dose should be used, with constant monitoring. After the first trimester, drugs cannot cause cardiac malformations, but failure to treat depression can lead to severe consequences for the mother, including the risk for postpartum depression, and child.
Dr. Swain presents evidence for specific brain activations of parents listening to their own babies’ stimuli, with the highest preoccupancy in first-time mothers listening to their own babies’ cries versus other babies’ cries. Preliminary evidence suggests that brain activation varies depending on gender, breast feeding, method of delivery, and perceived maternal care. Additionally, parental brain structure seems to change over time with the birth of a child. However, mothers with postpartum depression seem to behave differently from mothers without depression. For example, they display fixed, artificial smiles and are not close with their babies. Furthermore, their babies attempt to get away from mothers. Future research might examine child outcomes across the lifespan and include community samples in neuroscience research on brain activity.
Key Words: depression, perinatal, postpartum, antidepressants, medication, neuroimaging, development
Friday, May 29, 2009
Personality and Mental Illness
- Paul Costa, Ph.D., Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, Nat'l Institute on Aging (NIH)
- Sandra Villafuerte, Ph.D., Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School
Friday, March 27, 2009
- Kurt Kroenke, M.D., Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine
- Donald Nease, M.D., Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School
The standard way to detect a fever is simple: a temperature above 98.6° F. Measuring depression, however, is not standardized. In this colloquium, Indiana University School of Medicine Professor Kurt Kroenke, M.D., and University of Michigan Medical School Associate Professor Donald Nease, M.D. share work on the development of standardized depression measurement tools to be used in primary care settings. Dr. Kroenke explains findings about the use of several versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and recommends that it be kept as brief as possible, all purpose, self-administered and free. Donald Nease, M.D. presents a new line of research about measuring depression remission in primary care settings. This is especially important because sometimes a patient reports feeling better but still fits the clinical definition for depression, and sometimes a patient appears to be in remission by definition, but does not report feeling better. Dr. Nease recommends measuring happiness, emotional control, contentment, pain, self-isolation and overall sense of well-being as a way to more accurately determine if a patient is in remission from depression.
Key words: PHQ, standardized, measuring Depression, primary care, GAD, STAR*D, remission
*This recording ends at minute 55 of 94.
Friday, February 13, 2009
- Steven S. Zalcman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey – New Jersey Medical School
- Alan R. Prossin, M.D., Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School
What role does the immune system play in major depression? Steven S. Zalcman, Ph.D. from the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey Medical School gives an introduction to how scientists discovered and began studying the connection between immunology (the study of the immune system) and psychopathology (the study of mental disorders). He explains how the immune system affects the brain and then presents two experiments that study relationships between stress, illness and behavior in rats. Dr. Zalcman’s findings support a classic theory about “Sickness Behavior.” Sickness behaviors are adaptive behaviors, like sleepiness, that affect motivation and usually help individuals recover from illness. He finds that stress on the immune system affects serotonin receptors, a key component in depression. Alan R. Prossin, M.D. from the University of Michigan Medical School Department of Psychiatry presents two studies related to how stress affects mood through the immune system (specifically, through proteins called “peripheral cytokines”). He concludes that the certain neurological transmissions are abnormal in people with depressive symptoms and recommends that more research be done in order to better understand this phenomenon.
Key Words: immune system, immunology, cytokines, mood, brain, stress, sickness behavior, serotonin
Thursday, January 29, 2009
- Diego Pizzagalli, Ph.D., John and Ruth Hazel Associate Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Harvard University
- Patricia Deldin, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Michigan
In this colloquium, University of Michigan Psychology and Medical School Associate Professor Patricia Deldin, Ph.D. shares studies in which she uses brain-imaging techniques to explore the psychological and neurological workings of positive and negative cognitive biases. Dr. Deldin finds evidence for ‘depressive realism,’ which implies that healthy individuals have positive biases, while people with depression may perceive their experiences with a more even, less biased view. These results do not support the initial hypothesis expecting a negative bias in depressed participants. Diego Pizzagalli, Ph.D. of Harvard University’s Psychology Department then presents on efforts to develop a definition of depression based on how individuals behave. He outlines two studies that use reward and punishment scenarios to research how depressed participants behave in response to their environment. In these studies, Dr. Pizzagalli finds that individuals with depression are less responsive to incentive and reward than non-depressed individuals. Together, Dr. Deldin and Dr.Pizzagalli’s findings suggest that depression may lead to less bias and emotional response.
Key Words: neuro-imaging, fMRI, EEG, ERP, bias, psychological processes, realism, phenotype, genes, anhedonia, incentive, reward, punishment, stress.